2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 11: Lens by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD

By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD

Stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. additionally presents an summary of lens and cataract surgical procedure, and describes the problems of surgical procedure.

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Sample text

Ungerleider and Mishkin’s (1982) functional distinction (see also Mishkin et al. 1983; Ungerleider 1985) has been widely considered to provide a unifying framework for theorizing about higher visual processing in the primate brain and to encompass neatly a large body of knowledge ranging from human neuropsychology to monkey neurophysiology. Their distinction between two visual systems, one specialized for object vision, the other for spatial vision, now permeates most cognitive, computational, and philosophical accounts of vision designed to relate to the neural hardware.

Conversely, stimulation of this structure, either electrically or pharmacologically, will often elicit contraversive movements of the eyes, head, limbs, and body that resemble normal orienting movements (see the review by Dean et al. (1989)). The orienting behaviour that appears to be mediated by the superior colliculus has been characterized by some writers, most notably Hess et al. (1946), as a ‘visual grasp reflex’ (visueller Greifreflex), a rapid shift in gaze that brings a stimulus originally located in the visual periphery into the central vision where it can be scrutinized in more detail.

The mirror-symmetrical behaviour of the rewired frogs could now be easily explained. When prey objects or looming discs were presented to the eye ipsilateral to the remaining tectum, they elicited behaviour from the tectal circuitry that was appropriate for the location of stimuli within the visual field of the eye contralateral to the tectum. It was not the case, however, that the entire perceptual world of the rewired frog was simply a mirror image of what it had been before. Not all visually guided behaviour was reversed in these animals.

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