Classical Dynamical Systems by Walter E Thirring

By Walter E Thirring

Mathematical Physics, Nat. Sciences, Physics, arithmetic

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5]. Because f(O, x 2 , ••• , x m) = (0, X2' ... , x m ), 1jI( U) = 13 X V3 n f(I 3 x V3 ) # 0, it is possible to introduce (U,f -1 IjIlu) as a new chart, Pictorially, 0 Figure 11 The relationship of the domains. f) (1,0, ... ,0) = (1,0,0, ... ,0). Therefore the I x {X} are integral curves. 0 0 Jx 0 6. X: x ~ (x, for x > 0, and otherwise 0). For u(O) u(t) = 0 and u(t) = t 2/4. 4 Tensors The tangent space 'Fq(M) admits multilinear mappings, the tensors at the point q. This linear structure is extended in the global definition of the bundle of tensors over M, which is then used to define tensor fields.

Ire. e. :>. e. Ci" .... , ... , v:lt) = LC it ..... ir (i) n(vtleiJ r k= 1 The c it ..... ir are the components of the tensors, and are the quantities usually called tensors in physics. The tensor product of r arbitrary vectors is defined t Following the usual convention we use subscripts for the bases and superscripts for the components in a tangent space, and do it the other way around in a cotangent space. This does not fix what to do about coordinates. which are not vectors. 4 Tensors similarly to the tensor product of basis elements.

1 Jt. Js tV. ••• tV. ',. 'X'dxil \CI 'X' ... ', ... ,i~(X - a)o·'1 ® ... ® O·lr ® dx il ® ... ® dx is ). J1, ... ,}s 2. M = IRn, <1>: Xi ~ LikXk, T*(*t·• x ~ (x', o· 11 'X' \CI ... tV. \CI o· 'X' I,. \C;I dx il tV. ••• 'C:I 3. g E C'x'(M 1): <1>* dg = d(g a <1>-1). It is intuitively clear that the image of the differential of a function must be the differential of the image of the function.

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