By Bruno Lussato (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Critical Introduction to Organisation Theory
Let us enumerate as examples: the establishment and maintenance of hierarchical contacts, the activities of selling everyday objects, the firm's charter and the great majority of verbal communications. (c) Informal zone This includes the activities and processes which cannot be formalised, like the relationships created through influence (sales and promotion) and the majority of informal communications of the third domain (intrinsic). The information which circulates in this zone is pre-symbolic and ambiguous; it is often expressed by gestures, miming, hints or allusions and, in spite of its unobtrusive character, it plays a considerable role in operations of choice and decision in the first functional sector (formulation of aims and values).
The same situation never recurs twice running, and the prohibition of Korsybski (1933) concerning the verb to be finds its perfect illustration here. In fact, it can never be said, in business*, A is B - or that two objects are identical. For example, two refrigerators are never identical. They may present the same external physical characteristics, and cost 14 A Critical Introduction to Organisation Theory the same; but one will prove defective and cause expense and loss of reputation to its maker or supplier, while another will behave normally.
And the technique-language, comprising terms such as overflow planning, flow diagram, exponential smoothing, variance and standard deviation, sequential access memory, punch card, etc. 8 24 A Critical Introduction to Organisation Theory are represented by three sorts of arrow: => show the dominating influences of one entity on the other. Others, with a broken line: - -+ represent reciprocal or retroactive influences. The black arrows -+ symbolise the effects of the movement of words between the different languages.