A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from by Frederick Copleston

By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A historical past Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest goal of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible historical past of philosophy in English.

Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of sizeable erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the lifestyles of God and the opportunity of metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient diet of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with so much of history's nice thinkers used to be reduced to simplistic caricatures. Copleston set out to redress the inaccurate through writing a whole heritage of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and intellectual pleasure -- and one who offers full place to every philosopher, providing his suggestion in a beautifully rounded demeanour and displaying his links to those that went sooner than and to people who came after him.

The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a background of philosophy that's not going ever to be passed. Thought journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike whilst it reviewed Copleston's A background of Philosophy as "broad-minded and goal, finished and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we won't suggest [it] too highly."

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567-8. t F. IV, p. I73; M, II, p. 567. POST-KANTIAN IDEALIST SYSTEMS FICHTE (2) heteronomy. No external authority can be the required criterion. Further. the criterion must be at the disposal of all, unlearned as well as learned. Fichte fixes, therefore, upon conscience and describes it as an immediate feeling (Gefuhl). For inasmuch as the practical power has priority over the theoretical power, it is the former which must be the source of conscience. And as the practical power does not judge, conscience must be a feeling.

P. 292. • Ibid. urch BIn Handeln aUf eln Handel1l. The philosopher's re1lection is an activity, a domg. It makes the spontaneous activity of the pure ego relive itself so to Speak, for consciousness. I F, I, p. 104; M, I, p. 298. ' POST-KANTIAN IDEALIST SYSTEMS FICHTE (1) a definite object or set of finite objects. And this unlimited non-ego is opposited to the ego within the ego. For we are engaged in the systematic reconstruction of consciousness; and consciousness is a unity, comprising both ego and non-ego.

It is through the act of the philosopher, 'through an activity directed towards an activity ... that the ego first c()mes to be originally [urspr£inglich] for itself'. 1 In intellectual intuition, therefore, the pure ego is said to posit itself (sich setzen). 11 In transcendental reflection the philosopher goes back, as it were, to the ultimate ground of consciousness. And in his intellectual intuition the pure ego affirms itself. It is not demonstrated as a conclusion from premisses: it is seen as affirming itself and so as existing.

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