By Carlton J. H. Hayes
Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) was once additionally beneficial: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with out quandary; in go back for this concession England diminished the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once no longer unfavourable both, for it confirmed universal exchange rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the only own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which have been inaugurated (1603) via the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded less than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies lower than the identify of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persevered Decline of Royal energy Upon the dying of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: based on the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor frightened to rule, yet was once content material purely to reign. The company of management, hence, used to be passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to hold the good-will of the main social gathering in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard in view that this tradition, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt of the uk this present day, and has been copied lately via many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early historical past. Even sooner than the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had urged and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered so much of its real services to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...
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Extra resources for A political and social history of modern Europe
Norway remained under Danish kings until 1814. [Sidenote: The Slavs in Central and Eastern Europe] 30 East of the Scandinavian peninsula and of the German-speaking population of central Europe, spread out like a great fan, are a variety of peoples who possess many common characteristics, including a group of closely related languages, which are called Slavic. These Slavs in the year 1500 included (1) the Russians, (2) the Poles and Lithuanians, (3) the Czechs, or natives of Bohemia, within the confines of the Holy Roman Empire, and (4) various nations in southeastern Europe, such as the Serbs and Bulgars.
Xv, xvi; F. W. Maitland, The Constitutional History of England (1908), Period II. On Scotland: P. H. Brown, History of Scotland , 3 vols. (1899-1909), Vol. , 4 vols. (19011907), Vol. I. On France: A. J. Grant, The French Monarchy, 14831789 , 2 vols. (1900), Vol. I, ch. i, ii, brief and general; G. B. Adams, The Growth of the French Nation (1896), ch. viii-x, a suggestive sketch; G. W. , 3 vols. (1894-1899), Vol. I and Vol. II (in part), dry and narrowly political; Lavisse (editor), Histoire de France , Vol.
On Spain and Portugal: E. P. Cheyney, European Background of American History (1904), pp. 60-103; U. R. , 2 vols. (1900), edited by M. A. S. Hume, Vol. II best account of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella; W. H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella , 3 vols. (1836), antiquated but extremely readable; Mrs. Julia Cartwright, Isabella the Catholic (1914), in ”Heroes of the Nations” Series; H. M. Stephens, Portugal (1891) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien , 7 vols.