Adam Smith - An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The by Fred R. Glahe

By Fred R. Glahe

An Inquiry into the character and motives of the Wealth of countries is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. it's a essentially written account of economics on the sunrise of the commercial Revolution, in addition to a rhetorical piece written for the widely trained person of the 18th century - advocating a unfastened marketplace economic system as extra efficient and more suitable to society.The paintings is credited as a watershed in historical past and economics as a result of its finished, principally exact characterization of financial mechanisms that live to tell the tale in sleek economics; and likewise for its potent use of rhetorical process, together with structuring the paintings to distinction actual international examples of unfastened and fettered markets.---Исследование о природе и причине богатства народов (англ. An Inquiry into the character and motives of the Wealth of countries) — основная работа шотландского экономиста Адама Смита, опубликованная nine марта 1776 года во времена Шотландского просвещения.Книга оказала значительное влияние на экономическую теорию и в частности на политическую экономию.Ещё при жизни Адама Смита книга выдержала пять изданий в Англии (в 1776, 1778, 1784, 1786 и 1789), была издана во Франции (первый перевод в 1779 году) и в Германии. Огромное количество изданий было сделано после смерти Смита (1790 год).Трактат состоит из five книг:
Причины увеличения производительности труда и порядок, в соответствии с которым его продукт естественным образом распределяется между классами народа;
О природе капитала, его накоплении и применении;
О развитии благосостояния у разных народов;
О системах политической экономии;
О доходах монарха или государства.

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The occasional fluctuations in the market price of gold and silver bullion arise from the same causes as the like fluctuations in that of all other commodities. The frequent loss of those metals from various accidents by sea and by land, the continual waste of them in gilding and plating, in lace and embroidery, in the wear and tear of coin, and in that of plate, require, in all countries which possess no mines of their own, a continual importation, in order to repair this loss and this waste. The merchant importers, like all other merchants, we may believe, endeavour, as well as they can, to suit their occasional importations to what they judge is likely to be the immediate demand.

The market price of every particular commodity is regulated by the proportion between the quantity which is actually brought to market, and the demand of those who are willing to pay the natural price of the commodity, or the whole value of the rent, labour, and profit, which must be paid in order to bring it thither. Such people may be called the effectual demanders, and their demand the effectual demand; since it maybe sufficient to effectuate the bringing of the commodity to market. It is different from the absolute demand.

As soon as land becomes private property, the landlord demands a share of almost all the produce which the labourer can either raise or collect from it. His rent makes the first deduction from the produce of the labour which is employed upon land. It seldom happens that the person who tills the ground has wherewithal to maintain himself till he reaps the harvest. His maintenance is generally advanced to him from the stock of a master, the farmer who employs him, and who would have no interest to employ him, unless he was to share in the produce of his labour, or unless his stock was to be replaced to him with a profit.

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