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Extra resources for Advanced Organic Synthesis. Methods and techniques
49, 98 (1969) and references cited therein. Dissolving Metal Reductions Although once used extensively for the reduction of functional groups, reactions employing dissolving metals have largely been replaced by other more convenient methods. Nevertheless, certain synthetic sequences that may require stereospecific or functionally selective reductions may best be executed by means of metals in solution. The Birch reduction, or its modifications (I)9 employs a solution of an alkali metal in liquid ammonia or an aliphatic amine and is still widely used in connection with the reduction of aromatic or conjugated systems.
Henbest, J. Husbands, and T. R. B. Mitchell, Proc. Chem. Soc. London, p. 361 (1964). 9. E. L. Eliel, T. W. Doyle, R. O. Hutchins, and E. C. Gilbert, cited in M. Fieser and L. Fieser, "Reagents for Organic Synthesis," Vol. 2, p. 228. Wiley/Interscience, New York, 1969. 10. A. Zurqiyah and C. E. Castro, Org. Syn. 49, 98 (1969) and references cited therein. Dissolving Metal Reductions Although once used extensively for the reduction of functional groups, reactions employing dissolving metals have largely been replaced by other more convenient methods.
Tarbell, /. Org. Chem. 33, 3797 (1968). G. A. Wiley, R. L. Hershkowitz, B. M. Rein, and B. C. Chung, /. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86,964 (1964). D. Levy and R. Stevenson, J. Org. Chem. 30, 3469 (1965). J. P. Schaefer, J. G. Higgins, and P. K. Shenov, Org. Syn. 48, 51 (1968). REFERENCES 53 7. C. Djerassi, Chem. Rev. 43, 271 (1948); L. Horner and E. H. Winkelmann in "Newer Methods of Preparative Organic Chemistry" ( W. ), Vol. 3, Academic Press, New York, 1964. 8. N. S. Isaacs, "Experiments in Physical Organic Chemistry," p.