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Extra info for Advances in Biophotonics
The pinhole is conjugate to the focus of the microscope lens, hence the name confocal microscopy. The laser is scanned across the specimen and the detector builds up an image pixel by pixel. A three dimensional image can be created by scanning many thin sections. As the image is built up one pixel at a time, the limitation is in the scanning mirrors. Some microscopes speed up scanning by using special acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) in place of one of the mirrors. AODs use a high-frequency sound wave in a special crystal to create a diffraction grating, which deflects the laser light.
The transducer takes the change in the receptor and converts it into a signal that can be detected by the detector. In an optical biosensor the transducer is usually an optoelectronic instrument. Optical biosensors need an accurate light source and an appropriate sensing technique. Live cells are extremely vulnerable to excessive amounts of energy. This limits the wavelength and power that can be used for the light source. The light source should not impart so much energy that it causes cell damage.
Some techniques are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The emerging field of molecular imaging is expected to have a big impact on preclinical studies using laboratory animals. g. luciferase enzymes) found in living organisms, such as some species of bacteria, algae, coelenterates, beetles, fish and fireflies. It is an extremely helpful tool for research at the cellular and molecular levels and has been used in live cell assays.