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Extra info for Affective Influences an Stereotyping
Group membership encourages behaviour to be attributed to the self and “ingroup”. Social identity theory thus states that individuals need to maintain a positive sense of personal and social identity and this is partly achieved by emphasising the desirability of one’s own group, focusing on distinctions between other “lesser” groups. Handy Hints for Evaluating the Work of Key Thinkers • Consider how a central trait can be defined or operationalised and what the difficulties of this might be. For example, is it simply a cor relation between different factors or is based mor e on context?
Behavioural Approaches Direct experience Most attitudes are the result of direct experience (positive or negative). This is related to Fishbein & Ajzen’s expectancy value model (1974), since negative experiences will lead to the experiencing of negative attitudes. Mere exposure effect also accounts for attitudes, since exposure leads to an evaluation represented in an attitude. Classical conditioning Repeated associations can mean that a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a less neutral response and can therefore be powerful in the formation of an attitude.
3 attribution Core Areas • • • • Actor-obser ver ef fect Attribution Correspondent inter ference theor y Covariation/ANOV A model • • • • Emotional lability Fundamental attribution er rror Internal and exter nal attribution Self-ser ving bias Learning Outcomes By the end of this chapter you should be able to: • outline and evaluate the key theories of attribution; and • understand the main er rors that af fect the attribution pr ocess. qxd 2/20/2006 11:43 AM Page 41 ATTRIBUTION 41 Running Themes • Compliance • Internalisation • Social influence • Normative social influence • Informational social influence • Individual centr ed approach Introduction Attribution is ‘the process of assigning causes of our own behaviour to that of others’ (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005).