After Rhetoric: The Study of Discourse Beyond Language and by Stephen R Yarbrough

By Stephen R Yarbrough

Acutely aware that express considering imposes regulations at the methods we converse, Stephen R. Yarbrough proposes discourse experiences as a substitute to rhetoric and philosophy, either one of that are structuralistic platforms of inquiry.Discourse experiences, Yarbrough argues, doesn't help the concept languages, cultures, or conceptual schemes usually effectively describe linguistic competence. He asserts trust in languages and cultures "feeds a fake dichotomy: both we percentage an analogous codes and conventions, reaching group yet risking exclusivism, or we proliferate transformations, reaching selection and freedom yet risking fragmentation and incoherence." Discourse reviews, he demonstrates, works round this dichotomy.Drawing on thinker Donald Davidson, Yarbrough establishes the concept group could be a end result of conversation yet isn't really a prerequisite for it. by way of disassociating our considering from conceptual schemes, we will stay away from the issues that include believing in an summary constitution that predates any utterance.Yarbrough additionally attracts on Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism to outline how utterances function in lifestyles and to teach how utterances are concerned with energy and the way strength pertains to figuring out. His dialogue of Michel Meyer's problematology treats the questions implied by means of a press release because the that means of the statement.Yarbrough introduces readers to a reputable theoretical framework for targeting discourse instead of on conceptual schemes that encompass it and to the capability merits of our utilizing this strategy in lifestyle.

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If you doubt this, ask yourself what kind of legal force, directed only at you, could compel you to drive on the left side of the road.  Rather than claim ''that you can never move one inch away from [your] norms and principles" (522), Fish should say that you are seldom within a mile of your norms and principles—the norms and principles you would have if you could control others' norms and principles.  The way things are, therefore, exceeds reality, if "reality" is taken to de­ Page 32 scribe the way things would be if no one believed and credited statements about it.

No matter what the probable outcome, "there is a kind of 'terministic compulsion' to carry out the implications of one's terminology" (19)—a linguistic motive behind the actions of everyone from the nuclear physicist to the Nazi propagandist, from the religious fanatic to the humanistic novelist.  This, as we shall see in the following chapters, has been the characteristic assumption of modernist and postmodernist thought about language—the assumption that we are necessarily defined and driven by symbolic systems not of our own making.

From this follows the third assumption: that the game is played upon a closed field, within an accountable totality.  Since power does not "exist universally in a concentrated or diffused form," it "exists only when it is put into action" (219).  Power may structure a "field of possibilities" within which a subject might choose and act, but the possibilities remain. " For Foucault, "this is a very special type of situation" (225).  Most of the time, however, such a stable state is reached before the final moment, since until a confrontation becomes ''a struggle to the death" it remains a process of adjustment in which "the fixing of a power relationship becomes the target—at one and the same time its fulfillment and suspension" (225).

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