Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution by Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward

By Joel M. Schwartz, Steven F. Hayward

This booklet files how a lot U.S. air caliber has greater in contemporary many years and provides by way of a ways the main exact photo on hand of constant pollution difficulties and the way to deal with them.

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Additional resources for Air Quality in America: A Dose of Reality on Air Pollution Levels, Trends, and Health Risks

Sample text

Although about 10 percent of monitoring locations violated the 24-hour and/or annual standards as of the end of 2004, the geographic extent of PM10 violation is much smaller than this percentage would suggest. After the violation rate had dropped to 2 percent by the mid-1990s, many monitoring sites in low-PM10 locations were retired, while additional monitors were added in the few remaining high-PM10 areas. 5. 5 levels occur mainly in urbanized areas as a result of motor vehicle, power plant, and fireplace emissions, while high PM10 levels are largely a result of windblown dust in more rural areas.

This chapter explores ozone trends and levels and the complications of ozone chemistry, and observes that the nation’s worst ozone problems are limited to a few parts of California. 27 28 AIR QUALITY IN AMERICA National Trends in Ozone Levels Ozone levels have been declining for decades around the United States. Figure 2-1 shows the trend in the average number of days per year exceeding the federal 1-hour and 8-hour ozone standards during the last thirty years. The solid lines are based on data from all monitoring sites that happened to be operating in a given year.

This “photochemical haze” became known as smog and was composed of ozone and other irritating gases. Yet monitoring data from the 1950s and ’60s show that by 1956, ozone had already begun a steady decline that continued through the 1960s and beyond (see figure 1-3 on page 17). The ozone decline may have begun even earlier, but data are not available before 1956. AIR QUALITY TRENDS 15 FIGURE 1-1 LONG-TERM TRENDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER IN PITTSBURGH Clean Air Act Passed TSP (µg/m3) Dustfall (tons/square-mile/year) 300 Pittsburgh TSP 250 Pittsburgh Dustfall National Avg.

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