An Economic and Social History of Europe from 1939 to the by Frank B. Tipton, Robert Aldrich

By Frank B. Tipton, Robert Aldrich

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Farben's needs only about one month. Abuse of labour on this scale was itself inefficient, and in addition the camp's poor industrial results resulted from shortages elsewhere in the economy, shortages which resulted in part from the operation of the camps themselves. 36 AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF EUROPE Europe's Jews made virtually no resistance to the slaughter. The uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in April 1943 occurred only after 310,000 of the 380,000 Jews in the ghetto had already been deported and was easily suppressed by the Germans.

The Great Patriotic War deserves its title. The deadly threat of Nazism welded Soviet society together. The challenge was met and surmounted by young, inexperienced graduates of the new technical schools - who replaced the victims of the purges and became the new elite in the Soviet system. The United States added the final crushing weight to the scales. Much of America's immense productive capacity still lay idle in 1941. During the next three years employment increased by nineteen million, while average plant utilisation rose from 40 to 90 hours per week between 1939 and 1944.

Rumanian oil output increased, and in both Rumania and Bulgaria heavy industrial investment expanded. Development of course was consciously one-sided, focused exclusively on Germany's need for armaments, heavy industrial goods and industrial raw materials. Bilateral arrangements obliged local governments to deliver goods to Germany, which Germany paid for in blocked and therefore useless credits. 5 billion in 1944. Local governments in effect paid for deliveries to Germany by expanding domestic credit, which created severe inflationary pressures and required further extension of central economic control.

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