By Al Behr, Vi Cherian and TS Mwamwenda (Auth.)
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Extra info for An Educational Psychology for Schools in Africa
Three phases can be noted in this connection (cf Fischer & Lazerson 1984: 636): (a) At the beginning of adolescence is the shared-activity phase of friendship, during which the focus is on concrete activity rather than on identity and personality. At this stage friendship means doing things together. (b) Middle adolescence ushers in the shared-identity phase of friendship, which is characterised by increased ability to think more abstractly about human relationships, the desire for emotional support and understanding, the sharing of intimate secrets, and the formation of cliques or groups based on shared attitudes and interests.
With further trials the successful movements were 'stamped in' and the useless ones eliminated so that, on being placed in the cage, the cat was able to escape within a few seconds. The animal had learned to carry out the correct actions. As a result of this experiment and many others, Thorndike formulated his three famous laws of learning. These are: (a) The law of exercise The more often a successful action is carried out, the more strongly the S-R bonds or associations become engrained. (b) The law of effect Actions (or responses) that result in feelings of satisfaction are likely to occur again in the same or similar situations.
4 Concrete operational thinking (8 to 11 years) The child is now capable of reversibility in his thinking and is able to classify objects. He can now place things in order according to their length, etc and to grasp relationships. The child is now able to deal adequately with number and arithmetical concepts. In addition, he begins to develop the idea of order in time, ie the idea of 'before' and 'after'. However, thinking is still concrete, ie dependent on the existence of actual objects. There is, as yet, no capacity to handle abstract ideas or to combine various types of conservation.